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Laser Welding: Types, Advantages, and Applications

Jun. 05, 2021

Laser welding is one of the most technically advanced forms of welding. Its applications span across a diverse array of industries from aerospace to fine jewelry making.However, there are several types of welding which were used long before laser welding, so it begs the question of why do we need laser technology when we have other alternatives?Laser Welding Machine Supplier to share with you

The process of laser welding

Laser welding uses a highly concentrated beam of light on a very tiny spot so that the area under the laser beam absorbs the light and becomes highly energetic. As powerful laser beams are used, the electrons in the area get excited to a point where the material melts as the result of the atoms breaking the bonds with each other.

Laser Welding Machine

Laser Welding Machine

Laser welding can also be used to join plastics:

This melting of the two materials at their seams fuse them into a joint. It is surprising how light can be powerful enough to metal metals within milliseconds. To achieve such powerful laser beams, the Laser Welding Machine uses several parts that direct and amplify the laser.

Gas lasers, solid-state lasers, and fiber lasers are the three most common lasers used in a laser welding machine.

Normally, the laser beam is supplied to the laser welding machine by the use of optical fibers. There are single fiber welding machines and there are multiple fiber welding machines. The multiple fiber welding machines have a laser connected to each fiber, with each fiber, the strength of the laser increases.

To concentrate the beam to a point before it leaves the machine, a collimator lens in conjunction with a focusing lens is often used.

Four main weld joints are capable with laser welds:

Butt Weld

Filler Lap Weld

Overlap Weld

Edge Flange Weld

Types of laser welding:

Laser welding can be done in two ways – Heat conduction welding and keyhole welding.

Heat conduction welding: In this process, the metal surface is heated above the melting point of the metal, but not to an extent that it vaporizes. This process is used for welds that do not need high weld strength.

The advantage of hot conduction welding is that the final weld will be highly smooth and aesthetical. Low power laser in the range of <500W is used for heat conduction welding.

Keyhole welding: In this process, the laser beam heats up the metal in such a way that the contact surface vaporizes, digging deep into the metal. This creates a keyhole where a plasma-like condition is created with temperatures rising well above 10,000K.

This process required high powered lasers with power above 105W/mm2.

laser welding with other weld processes:

Laser welding is often used in conjunction with arc welding to create something called Hybrid Laser Arc Welding. In hybrid laser arc welding, any one of the arc welding processes like MIG, TIG or SAW is used with deep penetration laser welding.

The result is a weld that has the advantages of both laser welding and arc welding.

The resultant weld will have deep penetrating joints, thanks to the laser weld and will also have improved tolerance to joint fit-up. Other undesirable effects like cracking and internal porosity are also reduced.

Conclusion

Laser welding is used for high precision welds. Since it doesn’t employ any electrode, the final weld will be light but strong. The initial investment is certainly expensive, but the quality and characteristics of a laser weld cannot be easily replicated.As lasers get more powerful and energy-efficient, the future of laser welding is certainly bright!In addition, the company also provides Fiber Laser Cutting Machine, please feel free to contact us if necessary

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